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Brief history of batteries

Oct. 28, 2019

Whether it is a mobile phone, a computer, a camera or an electric car, it is based on the maturity of lithium battery technology. Car lithium cylindrical battery is widely used

The basic principle of the battery is to make the anode ( the negative electrode -) with a "higher activity" metal material, and to make the cathode ( the positive electrode +) with a relatively stable material, and the anode material loses electrons due to Coulomb force. The flow to the cathode is such that electrons are obtained, and the inside of the battery causes the anion flow of the cathode to combine with the anode and the cation, thereby forming a loop to generate electric energy.

It is also because this flow is essentially a chemical reaction, so follow the law of conservation of energy. If you do work on external electrical appliances, it means that the energy generated by the reaction is "absorbed" by the electrical appliances to achieve a relative balance. If there is no electrical appliance, but the circuit is connected, it means that energy is nowhere available, it will become thermal energy, and the speed is very fast, because the speed of electron movement is the same as the speed of light, which is why the battery will be heated or burned even if it is short-circuited. explosion.

INR 18650-1500mAh battery

INR 18650-1500mAh battery

Once the internal chemical energy consumption of the battery is completed, the battery is useless. Therefore, the rechargeable battery, that is, the internal chemical reaction can be "reduced" by external energization, and the special material and design need to be selected, and the "perfect" can be restored to the original state, so that the battery can regain chemical energy.

In 1799, the Italian physicist Alessandro Volta invented the first battery, which used a zinc sheet  and a copper sheet and a paper sheet soaked in salt water to make a cylindrical battery. To prove that electricity can be artificially manufactured. About 40 years later, the British chemist John Frederic Daniell solved the hydrogen bubble problem caused by the discharge of the volt stack by changing the battery form, at which time the battery can reach 1V voltage.

In 1850, the French physicist Gaston Planté invented a lead-acid battery, and the use of lead not only achieves very low cost, but also provides 12V voltage, and Can be charged and recycled. Such batteries are widely used, and such batteries are used in vehicle batteries and early electric vehicles. As of 2014, 44.7 million lead-acid batteries were sold worldwide.

In 1899, the Swedish Waldemar Jungner invented a nickel-cadmium battery, which is the rechargeable battery used by the Walkman and the four-wheel drive that is often used in childhood. It laid the foundation for modern electronic technology.

After 1950, Canadian engineer Lewis Urry invented the very common alkaline battery, which is commonly used in daily life. Most of the batteries are not rechargeable. Of course, there are also specially designed alkaline batteries that can charge, and even display the current power by pressing the surface of the battery.

In 1989, the first commercial nickel-hydrogen battery was introduced, which took more than 20 years of research and development. With the new formulation, nickel-metal hydride batteries have increased energy density and reduced pollution compared to nickel-cadmium batteries. More importantly, nickel-metal hydride batteries have no "memory effect."

In 1991, Sony introduced the first commercial lithium-ion battery, which is now widely used due to its high energy density and formulation that can adapt to different environments.

The above-mentioned various batteries have gone through the lithium battery stage after 200 years of history, and the purpose is to be lighter, smaller, and more energy. 18650 high security lithium ion battery is the most common.

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